View the Original Response
Archeology is the study of human society and artifacts related to that. Archeologists excavate sites to conduct a study. They join with the local people and government to excavate sites. They follow a process. First of all they survey the site. This is done by either direct visual surrey or remote sensing. They take pictures of the site or penetrate the ground with scanners to locate artifacts. After that they begin excavation. They start by setting up a grid and connect it to a datum - a fixed ref.poijnt. Next, they dig several test pits to determine the location, density, and spread of the artifacts. Then they excavate teh site using trovels, shovels, and various other tools. They remove the dirt and note the precise location of the artifacts. The dirt removed is screened to search for any small artifacts that may have been missed initially. Theu also look for features, that is any unmovable human activity like fire rings. Finally, once the site is completely excavated, they t=fill the site back and tke the aritfacts to the lab to anaylize. These ae the methods to excavate an artifact.
When archaeologists excavate a site looking for artifacts, they also look for features. A feature is evidence oda human activity that is not movable, and usually has a vertical component. An aspect of a site that is only horizontal, ike a road, is not a feature. An example is a frequently used fire ring will leave evidence behind in the soil, but it cannot be moved with the components. This is a feature.
While excavating a site, a pot shard is discovered near some trees. It is estimated that this shard is from around 100 B.C. To confirm this we can use artifacts found on the site with confirmed dates. These artifcats are known as diagnostic artifacts. The other method is Dendrochronology method, whiich uses the annual growth rings in trees to establish an age for artifacts.